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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     .

Commission file number: 1-10466

The St. Joe Company

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Florida

    

59-0432511

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

130 Richard Jackson Boulevard, Suite 200

Panama City Beach, Florida

32407

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(850) 231-6400

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, no par value

JOE

New York Stock Exchange

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES   NO  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.   YES   NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   YES      NO  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   YES  þ    NO  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   YES     NO  

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s Common Stock held by non-affiliates based on the closing price on June 30, 2023, was approximately $1.7 billion.

As of February 19, 2024, there were 58,372,040 shares of common stock, no par value, issued of which 58,372,040 were outstanding.

Documents Incorporated By Reference

Portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, which proxy statement will be filed no later than 120 days after the close of the Registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, are hereby incorporated by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Table of Contents

THE ST. JOE COMPANY

INDEX

Page No.

PART I

Item 1. Business

3

Item 1A. Risk Factors

7

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

20

Item 1C. Cybersecurity

20

Item 2. Properties

21

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

22

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

22

PART II

Item 5. Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

23

Item 6. Reserved

24

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

24

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

56

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

56

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

56

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

57

Item 9B. Other Information

58

Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdiction that Prevent Inspections

58

PART III

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

59

Item 11. Executive Compensation

59

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

59

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence

59

Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services

59

PART IV

Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

60

SIGNATURES

62

2

Table of Contents

PART I

Item 1.    Business

As used throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the terms “St. Joe,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us” include The St. Joe Company, its consolidated subsidiaries and consolidated joint ventures unless the context indicates otherwise.

Description

St. Joe was incorporated in the State of Florida in 1936. We are a real estate development, asset management and operating company. As of December 31, 2023, we owned 168,000 acres of land in Northwest Florida, compared to 169,000 acres and 170,000 acres as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. A portion of our land is within The Bay-Walton Sector Plan (“Sector Plan”), that entitles, or gives legal rights, for us to originally develop over 170,000 residential dwelling units, over 22 million square feet of retail, commercial and industrial space and over 3,000 hotel rooms on lands within Florida’s Bay and Walton counties. We also have additional entitlements, or legal rights, to develop acreage outside of the Sector Plan. Approximately 87% of our real estate is located in Florida’s Bay, Gulf, and Walton counties. Approximately 90% of our real estate land holdings are located within fifteen miles of the Gulf of Mexico.

Strategy

St. Joe believes its long-term, owner-oriented capital and management allows us to optimize the value of Northwest Florida real estate by developing residential, hospitality, and commercial projects that meet growing market demands. This strategy is designed to provide opportunities to build recurring revenues and enterprise value for the foreseeable future. We may partner with or explore the sale of discrete assets when we and/or others can better deploy resources.

Capital is invested to achieve risk-adjusted rates of return and support future business initiatives that create value. New projects are planned for stand-alone profitably and to benefit other enterprise activities. Investments, which include investments in joint ventures (“JVs”) and limited partnerships, are funded with cash proceeds from completed projects, existing cash, owned-land, partner capital and financing arrangements. Actual investments may vary from planned capital investments for various reasons. We do not anticipate immediate benefits from investments. We may choose to operate rather than lease assets, lease rather than sell assets, or sell improved rather than unimproved land that may delay revenue and profits. We continue to maintain low fixed expenses, low corporate debt and high liquidity for sustainability in all environments.

We distribute cash in excess of expected operating needs to shareholders through cash dividends and common stock repurchases, as approved by the Board of Directors (the “Board”). A cash dividend of $0.10 per share on our common stock was paid in each of the first and second quarters of 2023 and $0.12 per share on our common stock was paid in each of the third and fourth quarters of 2023. A quarterly cash dividend of $0.10 and $0.08 per share on our common stock was paid in each quarter of 2022 and 2021, respectively. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we did not repurchase shares of our common stock. During the year ended December 31, 2022, we repurchased 576,963 shares of our common stock for an aggregate purchase price of $20.0 million. As of December 31, 2023, we have a total of $80.0 million available for the repurchase of shares pursuant to our Stock Repurchase Program (the “Stock Repurchase Program”). See Item 5. Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities and Note 15. Stockholders’ Equity included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K.

Reportable Segments

St. Joe operations are reported in three segments: (1) residential, (2) hospitality and (3) commercial. For financial information about our reportable segments, see Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, as well as Note 19. Segment Information included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K.

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Investments in Joint Ventures and Limited Partnerships

As part of our core business strategy, we have created a meaningful portion of our business through JVs and limited partnerships over the past several years. We enter into these arrangements for the purposes of developing real estate and other business activities, which we believe allows us to complement our growth strategy, leverage industry expertise and diversify our business.

These entities produce meaningful revenue. However, in the case of our unconsolidated JVs, the revenue generated by these entities is not included in our revenue. Instead, investments in JVs in which we are not the primary beneficiary, or a voting interest entity where we do not have a majority voting interest or control, but have significant influence are unconsolidated and accounted for by the equity method. Equity method investments are recorded initially at cost and adjusted subsequently to recognize the investor’s share of earnings, losses and changes in capital of the investee which are included in investment in unconsolidated joint ventures in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets and equity in income (loss) from unconsolidated joint ventures in the accompanying consolidated statements of income. See Note 4. Joint Ventures included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K for additional information.

Additionally, we have determined that as of December 31, 2023, our unconsolidated LMWS, LLC JV (the “Latitude Margaritaville Watersound JV”) has met the conditions of a significant subsidiary under Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X. The Latitude Margaritaville Watersound JV did not meet the significant subsidiary test under Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X as of December 31, 2022 or as of December 31, 2021. The separate financial statements of the Latitude Margaritaville Watersound JV, as required pursuant to Rule 3-09 of Regulation S-X, are filed as Exhibit 99.1 in Item 15 of this Form 10-K.

Seasonality and Market Variability

St. Joe’s operations may be affected by seasonal fluctuations. The revenues and earnings from our business segments may vary significantly from period to period. Homebuilders tend to buy multiple homesites in sporadic transactions. In addition, homesite prices vary significantly by community, which further impacts period over period results. Therefore, there may be reporting periods in which we have no, or significantly less, revenue from residential or commercial real estate sales. We may also choose to operate rather than lease assets, lease rather than sell assets, or sell improved rather than unimproved land that may delay revenue and profits.

Hospitality revenues are typically higher in the second and third quarters, and vary depending on the timing of holidays and school breaks. Commercial real estate sales tend to be non-recurring. Projects depend on uncertain demand. Extraordinary events such as hurricanes or public health emergencies may dramatically change demand and pricing for products and services.

Competition

St. Joe competes with local, regional and national real estate related companies; some of which may have greater financial, marketing, sales and other resources than us. Competition may adversely affect our ability to attract tenants to lease our commercial, multi-family and senior living properties or to attract purchasers of our residential and commercial real estate. In addition to the strong competition we face in our residential and commercial segments, highly competitive companies participate in the hospitality business. Our ability to remain competitive and to attract new and repeat guests, customers and club members depends on our success in distinguishing the quality and value of our products and services from those offered by others. We compete based on location, price and amenities. The principal methods of competition are price and quality. Labor markets in the industries in which we operate are also competitive. We must attract, train and retain a large number of qualified employees while controlling related labor costs. We face significant competition for these employees from the industries in which we operate as well as from other industries. There can be no assurance we will be able to compete successfully against competitors or that competitive pressures will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

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Regulations

St. Joe operations are subject to federal, state and local government laws and regulations that affect every aspect of our business, including environmental and land use laws relating to, among other things, water, air, solid waste, hazardous substances, zoning, construction permits or entitlements, building codes and the requirements of the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Act and comparable state statutes relating to the health and safety of our employees. Although we believe that we are in material compliance with these requirements, there can be no assurance that we will not incur significant costs, civil and criminal penalties, and liabilities, including those relating to claims for damages to property or natural resources, resulting from our operations. We maintain environmental and safety compliance programs for our facilities and timberlands to monitor compliance with these laws and regulations. Enactment of new laws or regulations, or changes in existing laws or regulations or the interpretation and enforcement of these laws or regulations, might require significant expenditures.

Human Capital Management

At The St. Joe Company, we believe our employees are our greatest asset. We strive to attract, retain and develop the highest quality talent. As of February 19, 2024, we employed 810 full-time employees and 168 part-time and seasonal employees.

Recruitment and Retention

Success depends upon our ability to attract and retain skilled employees. As such, we are committed to recruiting top talent and offer competitive benefits, wages and a rewarding work environment.

We have a demonstrated history of investing in our workforce by offering competitive salaries and wages, which we continuously evaluate based on the business environment and labor market. We have consistently made enhancements in wages in order to attract talent to support our growth strategy and enhance the customer experience. At times, we rely on the J-1 and H-2B visa programs to bring workers to the United States (“U.S.”) to fill seasonal staffing needs of our hospitality operations and ensure that we have the appropriate workforce in place. These programs allow students participating in internship programs to expand their cultural experience outside of their home country through employment opportunities within the hospitality environment.

In addition to competitive wages, we offer our employees and eligible family members a comprehensive and valuable benefits program. Our suite of benefits offered to all full-time employees include group health plans, which include medical, dental, vision, life and disability benefits with Company sharing of premiums for certain coverages. We also offer a 401(k) retirement savings plan with Company match, paid vacation and holidays, jury pay, bereavement leave, an employee referral bonus program, tuition reimbursement program and discounted gym memberships. From time to time we provide team members with health care screenings and vaccinations on our properties. Our employees also enjoy discounts at our Company-owned properties and amenities, as well as other exclusive discounts and special offers which may include access to preferred seating and tickets to top attractions, theme parks, shows, sporting events, movie tickets, hotels and more.

As well as being a tool for improving our human capital management strategies, we evaluate employee engagement and satisfaction annually. We focus on our employees’ opinions and collect data through focus groups. Our executive team reviews feedback from our team and, based on the response, action plans are developed to focus on areas of opportunity throughout the course of the year. We are pleased to report that our most recent annual engagement results were favorable overall and have shown that our employees are proud to work for the Company. The results of focus groups help us to continuously improve our human capital strategies and find ways to foster engagement and growth for our team members.

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Diversity and Inclusion

We believe that a diverse and inclusive workplace is key to our success, and that it is our responsibility to advance racial and social equity. We strive to foster a diverse and inclusive environment where each of our team members are valued and respected while working to build a workplace, community and Company that reflects our core values.

As of February 19, 2024, approximately 32% of our workforce identify as racially diverse and approximately 47% of our workforce, including 50% of our executive management team, is comprised of female employees.

Health and Safety

The health and safety of our team members is a top priority. We are committed to providing a safe and injury-free workplace. We continually invest in programs designed to improve physical, mental and social well-being, and provide access to a variety of innovative, flexible and convenient health and wellness programs.

Community Engagement

We are actively engaged in and committed to supporting the communities we serve. Our community engagement efforts seek to bring our core values to life and make a difference in the places where we live and work. We maintain strong connections to these communities, creating positive impact through outreach, recruitment, advocacy, philanthropy, pro bono service, and volunteerism. In addition, our developments positively impact the communities in which they are located, including by creating jobs in the Northwest Florida region and improving the overall quality of life in the area.

Sustainability

We are committed to the development of sustainable and efficient operations and business practices that enhance and protect our people, our communities and our planet. Our goal is to generate shareholder value while aligning our business practices to support the interests of our stakeholders and the communities we serve, including the sustainable development of Northwest Florida. Our process of defining sustainability priorities focuses on the simultaneous improvement of the environmental, social and financial position of the Company, and our strong leadership and governance practices that strive to integrate sustainability into our business strategy and corporate culture.

The acreage we own is located in Northwest Florida and the majority is managed in our forestry operations under our commercial segment. Many of Northwest Florida's state parks, state forests and wildlife refuges were created in part with St. Joe land.

The guiding principles of our sustainable forest management practices include complying with laws and regulations, developing a long-term sustainable timber harvest plan, and understanding the economic and social impacts on the surrounding region. We take a holistic approach to managing our resources – timber, land, water, soil and wildlife – with the goal of sustainability. We are leading by example and protecting the best of Florida by working closely with environmental agencies, community leaders and leading environmental and conservation organizations. Our sustainable forest management practices take many forms, including eradication of invasive plant species, restoring wetlands, thinning forests, replanting trees and conducting prescribed burns. We carry out prescribed burns annually, which helps restore natural ecosystems, improves wildlife habitats and reduces wildfire hazards. Additionally, we are engaged in the operation of two mitigation banks, which pursuant to mitigation plans approved by the applicable state and federal authorities, produce mitigation credits that are marketed and sold to developers of land in the Bay County, Florida and Walton County, Florida areas for the purpose of enabling the developers to obtain certain regulatory permits.

Additional information regarding our sustainability efforts is available in the Stewardship section of our website at https://www.joe.com/stewardship. The content of the Stewardship section of our website is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K or in any other report or document filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), unless expressly noted.

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Information

St. Joe’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”), Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q (“Form 10-Q”), Current Reports on Form 8-K (“Form 8-K”), and amendments to those reports may be viewed or downloaded electronically, free of charge, from our website at www.joe.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, you may review any materials we file with the SEC on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Our recent press releases are also available to be viewed or downloaded electronically from the Investor Relations section of our website at www.joe.com. St. Joe will provide electronic copies of our SEC filings free of charge upon request. Any information posted on or linked from our website is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.

Item 1A.    Risk Factors

Forward-Looking Statements

This annual report contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These statements include, among other things, information about possible or assumed future results of the business and our financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans, strategies, prospects and objectives. Such forward-looking statements can generally be identified by our use of forward-looking terminology such as "may," "will," "expect," "intend," "anticipate," "estimate," "believe," "continue" or other similar expressions concerning matters that are not historical facts. The Company cautions that its forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, and while we believe that our expectations for the future are reasonable in view of currently available information, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. All business decisions involve assessing known risks. However, some risks may be unknown with changing socio-economic, market conditions and interest rates. Estimates are used to assess, among other things, capital allocation decisions. Actual results or events may differ materially from estimates and those indicated in our forward-looking statements as a result of various important factors. Such factors include, but are not limited to, those discussed below.

Forward-looking statements are only as of the date they are made, and the Company undertakes no duty to update its forward-looking statements except as required by law. You are advised, however, to review any further disclosures we make on related subjects in our subsequent Form 10-Q, Form 8-K and other reports filed with the SEC.

You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all of the other information in this Form 10-K. The risks described below are not the only risks facing us. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all such risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all such risk factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may affect our business. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial, may also materially and adversely affect our business. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, strategies and prospects may be materially adversely affected and could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results contemplated by the forward-looking statements in this report and in the other public statements we make.

Strategic and Competitive Risks

We may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy. Our business strategy consists of developing our residential real estate and expanding the scope of our hospitality assets and services, our commercial portfolio of income producing properties and our other ventures to build recurring revenues and enhance enterprise value, while always maintaining sufficient enterprise liquidity. Management may fail in assessing risks related to this strategy, profitably maintaining and growing operations and allocating capital. We may also face risks from unidentified issues not discovered in due diligence of operations and investments. Management may fail in estimating and most efficiently allocating cash in excess of operational and strategic investment needs, including to shareholders by dividends and the repurchase of common stock.

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Management may also fail to accurately forecast financial results, and, as a result, actual results may vary greatly from management estimates. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $1,018.6 million of real estate investments, $66.4 million of investment in unconsolidated joint ventures and $66.0 million of property and equipment, net recorded on our books at depreciated cost basis subject to impairment testing. If market conditions were to deteriorate, our estimate of undiscounted future cash flows may fall below their carrying value and we may be required to take impairments, which would have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. Existing and planned operations utilize estimates of revenue, costs, profits, growth, and real estate market values.

We face significant competition across our business units. We compete with local, regional and national real estate leasing and development companies and homebuilders, some of which may have greater financial, marketing, sales and other resources than we do. Hospitality operations are subject to significant competition from other hospitality providers and lodging alternatives. Our ability to remain competitive and to attract new and repeat guests, customers and club members depends on our success in distinguishing the quality and value of our products and services from those offered by others. Competition from real estate leasing and development companies and homebuilders may adversely affect our ability to attract tenants and lease our commercial, multi-family and senior living properties, attract purchasers and sell residential homesites and commercial real estate and attract and retain experienced real estate leasing and development personnel. Labor markets in the industries in which we operate are also competitive, which have led to increased labor costs in recent years. We must attract, train and retain a large number of qualified employees while controlling related labor costs. In addition, we face competition for tenants from other retail shopping centers and commercial facilities, as well as for our multi-family and senior living communities. There can be no assurance we will be able to compete successfully against current or future competitors or that competitive pressures will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

A decline in general economic conditions, particularly in our primary market locations, could lead to reduced consumer demand for our products and services. Demand for our products and services is sensitive to changes in economic conditions over which we have no control, including the level of employment, consumer confidence, consumer income, consumer discretionary spending, consumer preferences, inflation, the availability of financing, changes in fiscal monetary policy and interest rate levels. In addition, the real estate market is subject to downturns, and our business is especially sensitive to economic conditions in Northwest Florida, where our developments and assets are located, and, more broadly, the Southeast region of the U.S., which in the past has produced a high percentage of customers for our products. If market conditions experience volatility or worsen, tenant and other customers’ demand may materially decline. For example, over the past several years, we have faced macroeconomic headwinds caused by, among other things, inflation, elevated interest rates, higher insurance costs, supply chain disruptions, financial institution disruptions and geopolitical conflicts, which impacted buyer sentiment. While demand across our segments remained strong despite these challenges, our business was impacted from the aforementioned macroeconomic factors, including insurance costs, supply chain disruptions, financial institution disruptions, cost increases and elevated interest rates, which, for example, have extended homesite and home deliveries in certain residential communities and increased operating costs. Although these delays generally have not resulted in increased cancellation rates, and therefore only impacted the timing of revenue recognition of our homesites, if conditions worsen or demand declines, we could experience cancellations that could adversely impact our business.

We and the real estate industry in general may be adversely affected during periods of high inflation, primarily because of higher construction and operating costs.

Our leasing projects are subject to a variety of risks that could impact returns. Our business strategy includes the development and leasing of multi-family and senior living properties, management of commercial properties and commercial assets for sale. These commercial developments may not be as successful as estimated due to leasing related risks, including the risk that we may not be able to lease new properties or obtain lease rates that are consistent with our projections, as well as the risks generally associated with real estate development. Additionally, development of leasing projects involves the risk associated with the significant time lag between commencement and completion of the project. This time lag subjects us to greater risks relating to, among other things:

fluctuations in the general economy;

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our ability to obtain construction or permanent financing on favorable commercial terms, if at all;
our ability to achieve projected rental rates;
the pace that we will be able to lease to new tenants;
higher than estimated construction costs (including labor and material costs); and
delays in the completion of projects because of, among other factors, inclement weather, labor disruptions, construction delays or delays in receiving zoning or other regulatory approvals, or man-made or natural disasters.

Failure to lease new properties or obtain lease rates that are consistent with our projections or significant time lags between commencement and completion of a commercial project may lead to lower than anticipated returns, which could adversely impact our ability to successfully execute our business strategy.

We face risks stemming from our strategic partnerships. We currently maintain, and in the future may seek additional strategic partnerships, including the formation of JVs, to develop real estate or to pursue other business activities, capitalize on the potential of our residential, hospitality and commercial opportunities and maximize the value of our assets. Certain of these JVs may be material to our business. For example, for the year ended December 31, 2023, our equity in income from the unconsolidated Latitude Margaritaville Watersound JV accounted for over 20% of our pre-tax income.

Our partners may take actions contrary to our instructions or requests, or contrary to our policies or objectives. We may not have exclusive control over the development, financing, management and other aspects of the partnership, which may prevent us from taking actions that are in our best interest but opposed by our partner. Our partners may experience financial difficulties, become bankrupt or fail to fund their share of capital contributions, which may delay construction or development of property or increase our financial commitment to the partnership. Our partners may take actions that subject us to liabilities in excess of, or other than, those contemplated. We may disagree with our partners about decisions affecting the partnership, which may result in litigation or arbitration that increases our expenses, distracts our officers and directors and disrupts the day-to-day operations of the property or business, which may delay important decisions until the dispute is resolved. Actions by our partners may subject the JV to liabilities or have other adverse consequences, including if the market reputation of a partner deteriorates. If a JV agreement is terminated or dissolved, we may not continue to own or operate the interests or investments of the JV or may need to purchase such interests or investments at a premium to the market price to continue ownership. In addition, we may not have sufficient resources, experience and/or skills to manage our existing JVs or locate additional desirable partners.

Our real estate investments are generally illiquid. Real estate and timber holdings are relatively illiquid. It may be difficult for us to sell such assets if the need or desire arises, which may limit our ability to make rapid adjustments to the size and content of our property assets. Illiquid assets typically experience greater price volatility, as a ready market does not exist and therefore can be more difficult to value. In addition, validating third party pricing for illiquid assets may be more subjective than more liquid assets. As a result, if we are required to liquidate all or a portion of our real estate or timber assets quickly, we may realize significantly less than the value at which we have previously recorded our assets. This impact may also be exacerbated in periods of general economic instability and capital markets volatility.

We may invest in new business endeavors or product lines, which are inherently risky and could disrupt our ongoing business and present risks not originally contemplated. In recent years, we have invested, and in the future may invest, in new business endeavors and product lines. New endeavors may involve new risks and uncertainties and may amplify existing risks, including additional competition, distraction of management from current operations, greater-than-expected liabilities and expenses, economic, political, legal and regulatory challenges associated with operating in new businesses or product lines, inadequate return on capital and potential impairment of tangible and intangible assets. New ventures are inherently risky and may not be successful. In addition, we may face difficulty integrating new businesses or product lines, assimilating new facilities and personnel and harmonizing diverse businesses and methods of operation. If any of our business endeavors are unsuccessful and we fail to realize the expected benefits of any new investment or product line or are unable to successfully integrate new businesses or product lines, our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition could be adversely affected.

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We face risks associated with short-term U.S. Treasury Bills. We hold significant cash balances that are invested in a variety of short-term U.S. Treasury Bills, that are intended to preserve principal value and maintain a high degree of liquidity. We have exposure to credit risk associated with our short-term U.S. Treasury Bills and these instruments are subject to price fluctuations as a result of changes in the financial market’s assessment of issuer credit quality, increases in delinquency and default rates, changes in prevailing interest rates and other economic factors.

A downgrade of the U.S. government’s credit rating may also decrease the value of any future investments in investments – debt securities (“Securities”). The market value of such potential future investments will be subject to change from period-to-period, especially in light of the financial institution disruptions and geopolitical conflicts which have caused market volatility. Our Securities have historically included investments in U.S. Treasury Bills classified as investments – debt securities. Credit-related impairment losses can negatively affect earnings. Investments in securities and funds are not insured against loss of principal. Under certain circumstances we may be required to redeem all or part of any future investment, which may result in a loss.

Our investments are supervised and directed by Fairholme Capital Management, L.L.C. (“FCM”, an investment advisor registered with the SEC) pursuant to the terms of an Investment Management Agreement, as amended, (the “Investment Management Agreement”). See Note 5. Investments included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K for additional information.

RISKS RELATED TO THE OPERATION OF OUR BUSINESS SEGMENTS

We are exposed to risks associated with commercial and residential real estate development and construction. Real estate development and construction, including homebuilding activities, entail risks that may adversely impact our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition, including:

general market conditions;
construction delays or cost overruns, which may increase project development costs;
labor costs and shortages of skilled labor, particularly as a result of the recent low unemployment rate in the U.S. and Florida especially;
supply chain disruptions and material shortages;
claims for construction defects after property has been developed, including claims by purchasers and property owners’ associations, and claims for construction defects arising from third party contractors;
the discovery of hazardous or toxic substances, or other environmental, culturally-sensitive, or related issues;
an inability to obtain required governmental permits and authorizations;
an inability to secure tenants necessary to support commercial, multi-family or senior living projects;
compliance with building codes and other local regulations;
unavailability of raw materials when needed, which may result in project delays, stoppages or interruptions, which may make the project less profitable;
insufficient infrastructure capacity or availability (e.g., water, sewer and roads) to serve the needs of our projects;
instability in the financial industry may reduce the availability of financing;
delay or inability to acquire property, rights of way or easements, which may result in delays or increased costs; and
weather-related and geological interference, including hurricanes, landslides, earthquakes, floods, drought, wildfires and other events, which may result in delays or increased costs.

The construction and building industry, similar to many other industries, have experienced, and may continue to experience worldwide supply chain disruptions and cost increases due to a multitude of factors, including inflation, elevated interest rates, higher insurance costs, labor shortages and geopolitical conflicts, such as the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the conflict in the Gaza Strip and the general unrest in the Middle East. Materials, parts and labor

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costs have increased in recent years, sometimes significantly and over a short period of time. In addition, material time delays or increases in construction costs resulting from the aforementioned factors may impact our ability to realize anticipated returns on such projects, impact the timing of revenue recognition, lead to cancellations and otherwise materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Nonetheless, should we experience increased cancellations as a result of such macroeconomic factors, our business could be adversely impacted.

Further, with regard to our residential segment, revenues from homesite sales can fluctuate period-to-period due to variations in the mix of sales from different communities, as well as other variations in product mix. Given these fluctuations in product mix, revenues from our residential segment may significantly vary from period to period.

In addition, real estate approvals may be subject to third party responses. It is not uncommon for delays to occur, which affect the timing of transaction closings and may also impact the terms and conditions of the transaction. Delays related to regulatory approvals may be due to the applicable governmental entity not being open due to the government being shut down or staffed insufficiently due to the government’s budgetary issues. These timing issues may cause our operating results, particularly relating to the impact of our land sales, to vary significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year.

Mortgage financing issues, including lack of supply of mortgage loans, tightened lending requirements and increases in interest rates, may reduce demand for our products. Purchasers of our real estate products may obtain mortgage loans to finance a substantial portion of the purchase price or may need to obtain mortgage loans to finance the construction costs of homes to be built on homesites purchased from us. Homebuilder customers depend on retail purchasers who rely on mortgage financing. Increases in interest rates increase the costs of owning a home and may adversely affect the purchasing power of consumers and lower demand for residential real estate. In addition to residential real estate, increased interest rates and restrictions in the availability of credit may also negatively impact sales or development of our commercial properties or other land we offer for sale. While over the past couple years, elevated interest rates negatively impacted buyers’ ability to obtain financing and the housing market generally, to date we have not experienced material declines in customer demand for our homesites. However, in the event financing challenges reduce demand from homebuilders to purchase homesites, then our sales, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition may be negatively affected.

Our residential segment is highly dependent on homebuilders and are subject to the risk of homebuilder concentration. We are highly dependent on homebuilders to be the primary customers for our homesites and to provide construction services in our residential developments. The homebuilder customers that have already committed to purchase homesites from us may decide to reduce, delay or cancel their existing commitments to purchase homesites in our developments. From time to time, we finance real estate sales with mortgage note receivables. If these homebuilders fail to pay their debts to us or delay paying us, it would reduce our anticipated cash flows. Homebuilders also may not view our developments as desirable locations for homebuilding operations, or they may choose to purchase land from other sellers. We also rely on a concentrated number of homebuilders for a significant portion of our residential homesite sales. Any of these events may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Our hospitality segment is subject to various risks inherent to the hospitality industry. The following factors, among others, are common to the hospitality industry, and may reduce the revenues generated by our hotel properties, food and beverage operations, golf courses, beach clubs, marinas and other entertainment assets:

reduced travel (including from airline disruptions, business reduction or elimination of typical travel in efforts to be conservative in uncertain financial times or adverse economic conditions), which we may be susceptible to given that the travel tourism on which our hospitality segment relies can entail a relatively high cost of participation and is based on discretionary consumer spending;
increased labor costs and shortages of skilled labor;
inclement weather conditions;

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changes in desirability of geographic regions in which our properties are located;
significant competition from other hospitality providers and lodging or entertainment alternatives;
our relationships with and the performance of third-party managers;
increases in operating costs, including increases in the cost of property insurance, utilities and real estate and personal property taxes, due to inflation and other factors that may not be offset by increased prices; and
natural or man-made disasters.

Any of these factors may increase our costs or limit or reduce the prices we are able to charge for our hospitality products or services, or otherwise affect our ability to maintain existing properties, develop new properties or add amenities to our existing properties.

Our insurance coverage on our properties may be inadequate or our insurances costs may increase. We maintain insurance on our properties, including property, liability, fire, flood and extended coverage. However, we do not insure our timber assets. Additionally, our insurance for hurricanes has limitations per named storm and is subject to deductibles. We use our discretion when determining amounts, coverage limits and deductibles for insurance. These terms are determined based on retaining an acceptable level of risk at a reasonable cost. This may result in insurance coverage that, in the event of a substantial loss, would not be sufficient to pay the full current market value or current replacement cost of our lost investment. Inflation, changes in building codes and ordinances, environmental considerations and other factors also may make it unfeasible to use insurance proceeds to replace a facility after it has been damaged or destroyed. Under such circumstances, we may not receive insurance proceeds or the insurance proceeds we receive may not fully cover business interruptions or losses and our earnings, liquidity, or capital resources may be adversely affected.

Homeowner property insurance companies doing business in Florida have reacted to previous hurricanes by increasing premiums, requiring higher deductibles, reducing limits, restricting coverage, imposing exclusions, refusing to insure certain property owners, and in some instances, ceasing insurance operations in the state. It is uncertain what effect these actions may have on future property insurance availability and rates in the state. The high costs of property insurance premiums in Florida may deter potential customers from purchasing a homesite in one of our developments or make Northwest Florida less attractive to new employers that can create high quality jobs needed to increase growth in the region, either of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Florida’s state-owned property insurance company, Citizens Property Insurance Corp., underwrites homeowner property insurance. If there were to be a catastrophic hurricane or series of hurricanes to hit Florida, the exposure of the state government to property insurance claims may place extreme stress on state finances.

Our insurance policies are generally renewed on an annual basis and, depending on factors such as market conditions, the premiums, terms, policy limits and/or deductibles can vary substantially. We can give no assurance that we will be able to maintain adequate insurance in the future at rates or on other terms we consider commercially reasonable. To offset negative insurance market trends, we may decide to self-insure additional risks. In the even that we decide to self-insure, if we experience a greater number of self-insured losses than we anticipate, our financial performance could be adversely affected. If we lose our ability to, or decide not to, self-insure these risks, our insurance cost could materially increase and we may find it difficult to obtain adequate levels of insurance coverage.

Our commercial segment is subject to risks associated with the financial condition of our commercial tenants. If one or more of our tenants, particularly an anchor tenant, declares bankruptcy, defaults or voluntarily vacates from the leased premises, we may be unable to collect rent payments from such tenant, re-lease such space or to re-lease it on comparable or more favorable terms. Additionally, the loss or failure to renew of an anchor tenant may make it more difficult to lease the remainder of the affected properties, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Alternatively, increases in consumer spending through e-commerce channels may significantly affect our tenants’ ability to generate sales in their stores, which could affect their ability to make payments to us. These economic and market conditions, combined with rising inflation and lack of labor availability, may also place a number of our key

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customers under financial stress, which may adversely affect our occupancy rates and our profitability, which, in turn, may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Our commercial segment is exposed to operational risks with respect to our senior living communities. We are exposed to various federal, state, local, and industry-regulated licensure, certification and inspection laws, regulations, and standards; state regulations regarding senior living resident agreements, which typically require a written resident agreement with each resident; the availability and increases in cost of general and professional liability insurance coverage; state regulation and rights of residents related to entrance fees; and the availability and increases in the cost of labor.

Our financial results may vary significantly period over period. The revenues and earnings from our business segments may vary significantly from period to period. Homebuilders tend to buy multiple homesites in sporadic transactions. In addition, homesite prices vary significantly by community, which further impacts period over period results. Therefore, there may be reporting periods in which we have no, or significantly less, revenue from residential or commercial real estate sales. We may also choose to operate rather than lease assets, lease rather than sell assets, or sell improved rather than unimproved land that may delay revenue and profits.

Hospitality operations are affected by seasonal fluctuations. Hospitality revenues are typically higher in the second and third quarters, and vary depending on the timing of holidays and school breaks. Commercial real estate sales tend to be non-recurring. Projects depend on uncertain demand. Extraordinary events such as hurricanes or public health emergencies may dramatically change demand and pricing for products and services.

We are subject to various geographic risks.

Growth of Northwest Florida. We are focused on developing real estate and expanding operations in Northwest Florida. Our success will be dependent on continued strong migration and population expansion in Northwest Florida. The future economic growth of Northwest Florida will largely depend on the ability and willingness of state and local governments, in combination with the private sector, to plan and complete significant infrastructure improvements in the region, such as new or existing transportation hubs, roads, rail, pipeline, medical facilities and schools and to attract families and companies offering high-quality and high salary jobs. Our future revenues will also depend on individuals seeking retirement or vacation homes in Northwest Florida. Florida’s population growth may be negatively affected in the future by a variety of factors, including adverse economic conditions, changes in state income tax or federal immigration laws, the occurrence of natural or manmade disasters or the high cost of real estate, insurance and property taxes. If Northwest Florida experiences an extended period of slow growth, or even net out-migration, our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition will likely be materially adversely affected.
Hurricanes. Florida is particularly susceptible to the occurrence of hurricanes. Depending on where any particular hurricane makes landfall, our developments in Northwest Florida may experience catastrophic damage. Such damage may materially delay sales or lessen demand for our residential or commercial real estate and lessen demand for our hospitality and leasing operations. If our corporate headquarters facility is damaged or destroyed, we may have difficulty performing certain corporate and operational functions. We maintain property and business interruption insurance, subject to certain deductibles.
Climate Conditions. The occurrence of other natural disasters and climate conditions in Northwest Florida, such as tornadoes, floods, fires, unusually heavy or prolonged rain, droughts, extreme heat, or other adverse weather events may have a material adverse effect on our ability to develop and sell properties or realize income from our projects. To the extent that such natural disasters and climate conditions occur, our projects could be damaged or destroyed, which may result in losses exceeding our insurance coverage. Natural disasters and climate conditions can also lead to increased competition for subcontracts, which can delay construction activities even after an event has concluded. In addition, our timber assets are subject to damage by fire, insect infestation, disease, prolonged drought, flooding, hurricane and natural disasters, which may adversely affect our timber inventory and forestry business. Furthermore, sea level rise due to climate change may have a material adverse effect on our coastal properties. The occurrence of natural

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disasters and the threat of adverse climate changes (or perceived threat of from climate change) may also have a long-term negative effect on the attractiveness of Northwest Florida and on our ability to obtain flood or other hazard insurance coverage. Manmade disasters or disruptions, such as oil spills, acts of terrorism, power outages and communications failures may simultaneously disrupt our operations.

We are dependent on third party service providers for certain services. We rely on various third parties to conduct the day-to-day operations of certain residential, hospitality, multi-family, senior living and other commercial properties. Failure of such third parties to adequately perform their contracted services may negatively impact our ability to retain customers. As a result, any such failure may negatively impact our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Public health emergencies could adversely affect our business. An epidemic, pandemic or similar serious public health issue, and the measures undertaken by governmental authorities to address it, could significantly disrupt or prevent us from operating our business in the ordinary course for an extended period, and thereby, and/or along with any associated economic and/or social instability or distress, have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

In addition to impacting general economic conditions, a public health emergency may exacerbate factors that impact our operations, including supply chain disruptions, labor shortages and rising commodity and product costs, which may continue after the public health emergency has subsided. Any continued impact could also amplify the other risks and uncertainties. The ultimate extent to which a public health emergency could impact our business is highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with any degree of confidence.

Risks RELATED to our existing ownership structure

Our largest shareholder controls approximately 38.9% of our common stock, which may limit our minority shareholders’ ability to influence corporate matters. Mr. Bruce R. Berkowitz is the Chairman of our Board. He is the Manager of, and controls entities that own and control, Fairholme Holdings, LLC (“Fairholme”), which wholly owns FCM. As of December 31, 2023, clients of FCM, including Mr. Berkowitz, beneficially owned approximately 38.9% of our common stock. FCM and its client, The Fairholme Fund, a series of investments originating from Fairholme Funds, Inc., may be deemed affiliates of ours. Fairholme is in a position to influence the vote of most matters submitted to our shareholders, including any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets, the nomination of individuals to our Board and any potential change in our control. These factors may discourage, delay or prevent a takeover attempt that shareholders might consider in their best interests or that might result in shareholders receiving a premium for their common stock. Additionally, our articles of incorporation and certain provisions of Florida law contain anti-takeover provisions that may make it more difficult to effect a change in our control.

Fairholme is in the business of making or advising on investments in companies and may hold, and may, from time to time in the future, acquire interests in or provide advice to businesses that directly or indirectly compete with certain portions of our business. Fairholme may also pursue acquisitions that may be complementary to our business, and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. Furthermore, future sales of our common stock by Fairholme, or the perception in the public markets that these sales may occur, may depress our stock price.

LEGAL, REGULATORY, AND LITIGATION RISK

We run the risk of inadvertently being deemed to be an investment company that is required to register under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Investment Company Act”). We are not registered as an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act and we intend to invest our assets in a manner such that we are not required to register as an investment company. This plan will require monitoring our portfolio so that on an unconsolidated basis we will not have more than 40% of total assets (excluding U.S. government securities and cash items) in investment securities or that we will meet and maintain another exemption from registration. As a result, we may be unable to make some potentially profitable investments, unable to sell assets we would otherwise want to sell or forced to sell investments in investment securities before we would otherwise want to do so.

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We have not requested approval or guidance from the SEC with respect to our Investment Company Act determinations, including, in particular: our treatment of any subsidiary as majority-owned; the compliance of any subsidiary with any exemption under the Investment Company Act, including any subsidiary’s determinations with respect to the consistency of its assets or operations with the requirements thereof or whether our interests in one or more subsidiaries constitute investment securities for purposes of the 40% test. If the SEC were to disagree with our treatment of one or more subsidiaries as being majority-owned, exempted from the Investment Company Act, with our determination that one or more of our other holdings do not constitute investment securities for purposes of the 40% test, or with our determinations as to the nature of the business in which we engage or the manner in which we hold ourselves out, we and/or one or more of our subsidiaries would need to adjust our operating strategies or assets in order for us to continue to pass the 40% test (as described above) or register as an investment company, either of which may have a material adverse effect on us. Moreover, we may be required to adjust our operating strategy and holdings, or to effect sales of our assets in a manner that, or at a time or price at which, we would not otherwise choose, if there are changes in the laws or rules governing our Investment Company Act status or that of our subsidiaries, or if the SEC or its staff provides more specific or different guidance regarding the application of relevant provisions of, and rules under, the Investment Company Act.

If the SEC or a court of competent jurisdiction were to find that we were required, but failed, to register as an investment company in violation of the Investment Company Act, we would have to cease business activities, we would breach representations and warranties and/or be in default as to certain of our contracts and obligations, civil or criminal actions may be brought against us, certain of our contracts would be unenforceable unless a court were to require enforcement and a court may appoint a receiver to take control of us and liquidate our business, any or all of which would have a material adverse effect on our business.

We are subject to various existing government regulations.

Development and Land Use Requirements. Approval to develop real property entails an extensive entitlements process involving multiple and overlapping regulatory jurisdictions and often requiring discretionary action by local government. This process is often political, uncertain and may require significant exactions in order to secure approvals. Real estate projects in Florida must generally comply with the provisions of the Community Planning Act and local land development regulations. Compliance with the State of Florida planning requirements and local land development regulations is usually lengthy and costly and can be expected to materially affect our real estate development activities. The Community Planning Act requires local governments to adopt comprehensive plans guiding and controlling future real property development in their respective jurisdictions and to evaluate, assess and keep those plans current. Included in all comprehensive plans is a future land use map, which sets forth allowable land use development rights. Some of our land has an “agricultural” or “silviculture” future land use designation and we may be required to seek an amendment to the future land use map to develop real estate projects. Approval of these comprehensive plan map amendments is highly discretionary.

All development orders and permits must be consistent with the comprehensive plan. Each plan must address such topics as future land use and capital improvements and make adequate provision for a multitude of public services including transportation, schools, solid waste disposal, sewerage, potable water supply, drainage, affordable housing, open space, parks and others. The local governments’ comprehensive plans must also establish “levels of service” with respect to certain specified public facilities, including roads, schools and services to residents. In many areas, infrastructure funding has not kept pace with growth, causing facilities to operate below established levels of service. Local governments are prohibited from issuing development orders or permits if the development will reduce the level of service for public facilities below the level of service established in the local government’s comprehensive plan, unless the developer either sufficiently improves the services up front to meet the required level of service or provides financial assurances that the additional services will be provided as the project progresses. In addition, local governments that fail to keep their plans current may be prohibited by law from amending their plans to allow for new development.

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If any one or more of these factors were to occur, we may be unable to develop our real estate projects successfully or within the expected timeframes. Changes in the Community Planning Act or the interpretation thereof, new enforcement of these laws or the enactment of new laws regarding the development of real property may lead to a decline in our ability to develop and market our communities successfully and to generate positive cash flow from these operations in a timely manner, which may have a materially adverse effect on our ability to service our demand and negatively impact our business, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

Our properties are subject to federal, state and local environmental regulations and restrictions that may impose significant limitations on our development ability. In most cases, approval to develop requires multiple permits, which involve a long, uncertain and costly regulatory process. Our land holdings contain jurisdictional wetlands, some of which may be unsuitable for development or prohibited from development by applicable law. Development approval most often requires mitigation for impacts to wetlands that require land to be conserved at a disproportionate ratio versus the actual wetlands impacted and approved for development. Some of our property is undeveloped land located in areas where development may have to avoid, minimize or mitigate for impacts to the natural habitats of various protected wildlife or plant species. Additionally, some of our property is in coastal areas that usually have a more restrictive permitting burden or must address issues such as coastal high hazard, hurricane evacuation, floodplains and dune protection.

Environmental Regulation. Current or past operations are subject to extensive and evolving federal, state and local environmental laws and other regulations. The provisions and enforcement of these environmental laws and regulations may become more stringent in the future, including as a result of attention from environmental advocacy groups. Violations of these laws and regulations can result in, among other things, civil penalties, remediation expenses, natural resource damages, personal injury damages, potential injunctions, cease and desist orders and criminal penalties. In addition, some of these environmental laws impose strict liability, which means that we may be held liable for any environmental damage on our property regardless of fault.

Past and present real property, particularly properties used in connection with our previous transportation and papermill operations, were involved in the storage, use or disposal of hazardous substances that may have contaminated and may in the future contaminate the environment. We may bear liability for this contamination and for the costs of cleaning up a site at which we have disposed of, or to which we have transported, hazardous substances. The presence of hazardous substances on a property may also adversely affect our ability to sell or develop the property or to borrow funds using the property as collateral.

We may be subject to risks from changes in certain governmental policies.

Mortgage Rates. The availability of mortgage financing is significantly influenced by governmental entities such as the Federal Housing Administration, Veteran’s Administration and Government National Mortgage Association and government-sponsored enterprises known as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Mortgage rates may also be adversely impacted by elevated interest rates, which may continue to increase as a result of the government’s response to inflation. If borrowing standards are tightened and/or the federal government were to reduce or eliminate these mortgage loan programs (including due to any failure of lawmakers to agree on a budget or appropriation legislation to fund relevant programs or operations) or if mortgage rates continue to increase generally, it would likely make it more difficult for potential purchasers of our products, including our homebuilder customers to obtain acceptable financing, which may have a negative effect on demand in our communities.
Climate Regulation. Potential impacts of climate change have begun to influence governmental authorities, consumer behavior patterns and the general business environment of the U.S., including, but not limited to, energy-efficiency measures, water use measures and land-use practices. The implementation of these policies may require us to invest additional capital in our properties or it may restrict the availability of land we are able to develop. These changes, or changes in other environmental laws or their interpretation thereof, new enforcement of laws, the identification of new facts or the failure of other parties to perform remediation at our current or former facilities may lead to new or greater liabilities that may materially

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adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.
Accounting Standards. Uncertainties posed by various initiatives of accounting standard-setting by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) and the SEC, which create and interpret applicable accounting standards for U.S. companies, may change the financial accounting and reporting standards or their interpretation and application of these standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes and others may have a material impact on how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, we may be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in potentially material restatements of prior period financial statements.

Changes to U.S. tax laws may materially affect us.

Income Tax. Tax laws are dynamic and subject to change as new laws are passed and new interpretations of the law are issued or applied. In many cases, the application of existing, newly enacted or amended tax laws may be uncertain and subject to differing interpretations. Changes in the tax laws, or in the interpretation or enforcement of existing tax laws, could increase our state and federal tax rates and subject our business to audits, inquiries and legal challenges from taxing authorities. As a result of changes in tax laws, we may incur additional costs, including taxes and penalties for historical periods, which may have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.
QOZ Program. As part of the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”), Congress established the Qualified Opportunity Zone program (the “QOZ Program”), which provides preferential tax treatment to taxpayers who invest eligible capital gains into qualified opportunity funds (“QOFs”). QOFs are self-certifying entities that invest their capital in economically distressed communities that have been designated as qualified opportunity zones (“QOZs”) by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) and Treasury. We have positioned ourselves to take advantage of the tax benefits offered by the QOZ Program. While the IRS has issued final regulations which address some of the uncertainties under the QOZ Program, because the QOZ Program is relatively new, a number of open questions remain. To the extent the IRS issues additional interpretive guidance that renders ineligible certain categories of projects that are currently expected to qualify, we may be unable to fully realize the benefits of the QOZ Program as anticipated, which may impact our investments.

We may be subject to periodic litigation and other regulatory proceedings. We may be involved in lawsuits and regulatory actions relating to business agreements, operations, assets, liabilities, or our position as a public company. An adverse outcome in any of these matters may adversely affect our financial condition, our results of operations or impose additional restrictions or limitations on us. In addition, regardless of the outcome of any litigation or regulatory proceedings, these proceedings may result in substantial costs and may require that we devote substantial resources to defend our Company.

Land use approval processes have become increasingly complex. Moreover, the statutes, regulations and ordinances governing the approval processes provide third parties the opportunity to challenge the proposed plans and approvals. As a result, the prospect of third-party challenges to planned real estate developments provides additional uncertainties in real estate development planning and entitlements. Third-party challenges in the form of litigation may result in denial of the right to develop, or would, by their nature, adversely affect the length of time and the cost required to obtain the necessary approvals. In addition, adverse decisions arising from any litigation would increase the costs and length of time to obtain ultimate approval of a project and may adversely affect the design, scope, plans and profitability of a project.

GENERAL RISKS

Risks associated with our human capital. Our ability to successfully implement our business strategy depends on our ability to attract and retain skilled employees. The labor markets in the industries in which we operate are competitive. We must attract, train and retain a large number of qualified employees while controlling related labor costs. Tighter labor markets may make it even more difficult for us to hire and retain qualified employees and control labor costs. Our ability to attract qualified employees and control labor costs is subject to numerous external factors, including prevailing wage rates, employee preferences, employment law and regulation, labor relations and immigration

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policy. While we are committed to recruiting top talent by offering, among other things, competitive wages, a significant increase in competition or labor costs increasing from any of the aforementioned factors may have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. In addition, our hospitality operations are highly dependent on a large seasonal workforce. We have historically relied on the J-1 and H-2B visa programs to bring workers to the U.S. to fill seasonal staffing needs and ensure that we have the appropriate workforce in place. If we are unable to obtain sufficient numbers of seasonal workers, through the J-1 and H-2B programs or otherwise, we may not be able to recruit and hire adequate personnel, and material increases in the cost of securing our workforce may be possible in the future. Increased seasonal wages or an inadequate workforce may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Risks associated with cybersecurity. We are reliant on computers and digital technology, including certain technology systems from third-party vendors which we use to operate our business which are not under our control. We collect digital information on all aspects of operations. Hospitality related businesses, in particular, require the collection and retention of identifiable information of our customers, as such information is entered into, processed, summarized, and reported by the various information systems we use. All of these activities give rise to material cyber risks and potential costs and consequences that cannot be estimated or predicted. The integrity and protection of our customer, employee and other company data, is critical to us. We make efforts to maintain the security and integrity of these networks and related systems. We have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption. There can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions, whether through cyber-attacks or cyber intrusions over the Internet, malware, computer viruses, attachments to emails, persons inside our organization or persons with access to systems, energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, and other significant disruptions of our networks and related systems, or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Further, the risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments or state-sponsored actors, and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. In particular, there has been a spike in cybersecurity attacks as work-from-home measures have led businesses to increase reliance on virtual environments and communications systems, which have been subject to increasing third-party vulnerabilities and security risks. Additionally, to the extent artificial intelligence capabilities improve and are increasingly adopted, they may be used to identify vulnerabilities and craft increasingly sophisticated cybersecurity attacks. Attachments crafted with artificial intelligence tools could directly attack information systems with greater speed and/or efficiency than a human threat actor or create more effective phishing emails. Vulnerabilities may also be introduced from the use of artificial intelligence by us, our customers, suppliers and other business partners and third-party providers. Use of artificial intelligence by our employees, whether authorized or unauthorized, increases the risk that our intellectual property and other proprietary information will be unintentionally disclosed.

Even the most well protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because the techniques used in such attempted security breaches evolve and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, and in some cases are designed not to be detected and, in fact, may not be detected. Accordingly, we and our service providers may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures, and thus it is impossible for us and our service providers to entirely mitigate this risk. Our failure to maintain the security of the data, including via the penetration of our network security and the misappropriation of confidential and personal information, may result in business disruption, increase in costs, damage to our reputation, material legal claims, fines, penalties, regulatory proceedings and other severe financial and business implications.

We are subject to risks related to corporate social responsibility and reputation. Our reputation and brands are important to our business. Our reputation and brands affect our ability to attract and retain consumers, financing, and secure development opportunities. There are numerous ways our reputation or brands could be damaged. These include, among others, product safety or quality issues, negative media coverage or scrutiny from political figures or interest groups. Customers are also using social media to provide feedback and information about our Company and products and services in a manner that can be quickly and broadly disseminated. To the extent a customer has a negative experience with, or view of, our Company and shares it over social media, it may adversely impact our brand and reputation.

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In addition, companies across many industries are facing increasing scrutiny from lawmakers, regulators, investors, customers, employees and other stakeholders related to their environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) practices, including those related to the environment, climate, diversity and inclusion, human rights and governance transparency. Various jurisdictions are developing climate-related laws or regulations that could cause us to incur additional direct costs for compliance, as well as indirect costs resulting from our customers, suppliers, or additional compliance costs that are passed on to us. Additionally, investor advocacy groups, including ESG-focused investor advocacy groups, certain institutional investors, investment funds and other influential investors are also increasingly focused on ESG practices and in recent years have placed increasing importance on the implications and social cost of their investments. Legal and regulatory requirements, as well as stakeholder expectations, on ESG practices and disclosures are subject to change, can be unpredictable, and may be difficult and expensive for us to comply with. Further, there is an increasing number of state-level anti-ESG initiatives in the U.S. that may conflict with other regulatory requirements or various stakeholders’ expectations. If we fail, or are perceived to be failing, to meet evolving legal and regulatory requirements or the expectations of our stakeholders, which are evolving, we may be subject to enforcement actions, required to pay fines, investors may sell their shares, we may suffer from reputational damage and our business or financial condition could be adversely affected.

The design and effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting may not prevent all errors, misstatements, or misrepresentations. While management will continue to review the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, there can be no guarantee that our internal control over financial reporting will be effective in accomplishing all control objectives at all times. Deficiencies, including any material weakness, in our internal control over financial reporting, which may occur in the future, may result in misstatements of our results of operations, restatements of our financial statements, a decline in our stock price, or otherwise materially adversely affect our business, reputation, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.

Our financing arrangements contain restrictions and limitations. Our financing arrangements contain customary representations and warranties, as well as customary affirmative and negative covenants that restrict some of our activities. See Note 10. Debt, Net included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K for additional information. Our ability to comply with the covenants and restrictions contained in our financing arrangements may be affected by economic, financial and industry conditions beyond our control, including credit or capital market disruptions. The breach of any of these covenants or restrictions could result in a default that would permit the applicable lenders to declare all amounts outstanding thereunder to be due and payable, together with accrued and unpaid interest. In any such case, we may be unable to repay the amounts due under such financing arrangements, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We may provide a guarantee of the debt in connection with our JVs. In certain instances, these guarantees provide for the full payment and performance of the borrower. See Note 10. Debt, Net and Note 20. Commitments and Contingencies included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K for additional information. If we were to become obligated to perform on any of these guarantees, our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition may be adversely affected.

We utilize derivative financial instruments to reduce our exposure to market risks from changes in interest rates. We may enter into interest rate swap instruments to limit our exposure to changes in variable interest rates. While our hedging strategy is designed to minimize the impact of increases in interest rates applicable to some of our variable rate debt, there can be no guarantee that our hedging strategy will be effective, and we may experience credit-related losses in some circumstances. See Note 6. Financial Instruments and Fair Value Measurements and Note 10. Debt, Net included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K for additional information. In addition, we typically refinance our outstanding debt prior to or in connection with its maturity. If we are unable to refinance our debt on favorable terms, our interest expense may increase. A refinancing of our debt could also require us to comply with more onerous covenants and further restrict our business operations. Any of these circumstances could adversely impact our financial position and results of operations.

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We cannot assure you that we will not make changes to our existing capital allocation plan, including whether we will continue to pay dividends at the current rate or at all. In 2023, we paid cash dividends of $0.10 per share on our common stock in the first and second quarters and $0.12 per share on our common stock in the third and fourth quarters, and we currently expect to continue to pay quarterly dividends. The declaration and payment of any future dividends will be at the discretion of our Board after taking into account various factors, including without limitation, our financial condition, earnings, capital requirements of our business, the terms of any credit agreements or indentures to which we may be party at the time, legal requirements, industry practice, and other factors that our Board deems relevant. In addition, we may decide not to make future stock repurchases at the same rate or at all.

We may continue to experience significant volatility in the market price of our common stock. Numerous factors may have a significant effect on the price of our common stock, including low trading volumes; announcements of fluctuations in our operating results; other announcements concerning our Company or business, including acquisitions or litigation announcements; changes in market conditions in Northwest Florida, the real estate or real estate development industry or hospitality operations in general; economic and/or political factors unrelated to our performance; comments by public figures or other third parties (including blogs, articles, message boards and social and other media); changes in recommendations or earnings estimates by securities analysts; novel and unforeseen trading strategies adopted by retail investors or other market participants and less volume and reduced shares outstanding due to execution of the Stock Repurchase Program that would reduce our “public float”. The market price of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) has been volatile, which may be unrelated or disproportionate to operating performance. Continued volatility in the market price of our common stock may cause shareholders to lose some or all of their investment in our common stock. Institutional investors might not be interested in owning our common stock.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 1C. Cybersecurity

We maintain a data security plan designed to provide a documented and formalized information security policy to detect, identify, classify and mitigate cybersecurity and other data security threats. This cybersecurity program is based in-part on, and its effectiveness is measured using, the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (“PCI DSS”) and is included in our overall enterprise risk management program.

In furtherance of detecting, identifying, classifying and mitigating cybersecurity and other data security threats, we also:

assess baseline configuration standards to meet the intent and effectiveness for overall safety and security (both logically and physically) of critical system components;
track asset inventory for relevant system components;
maintain network connection arrangement documents;
limit access rights to system components to authorized personnel, with end-users being granted access in accordance with stated access rights;
deploy anti-virus solutions on applicable system components, which are enabled for automatic updates and configured for conducting periodic scans as necessary;
provision and harden critical system resources;
use internal and external vulnerability scanning procedures, along with network layer and anti-hacking tests;
facilitate requests for validation of baseline configurations for purposes of regulatory compliance assessments and audits; and
provide cybersecurity training for employees.

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Conducting our businesses involves the collection, storage, use, disclosure, processing, transfer, and other handling of a wide variety of information, including personally identifiable information, for various purposes in our businesses. Like other comparable-sized companies that process a wide variety of information, our information technology systems, networks and infrastructure and technology have been, and may in the future be, vulnerable to cybersecurity attacks and other data security threats. These types of attacks are constantly evolving, may be difficult to detect quickly, and often are not recognized until after they have been launched against a target. For more information about these and other cybersecurity risks faced by us, see Part 1. Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Our Board has ultimate oversight for risks relating to our data security plan. In addition, the Board has delegated primary responsibility to the Audit Committee for assessing and managing data privacy and cybersecurity risks, reviewing data security and cybersecurity policies and processes with respect to data privacy and cybersecurity risk assessment and management, reviewing steps management has taken to monitor and control such risks, and regular inquires with our management team, internal auditors and independent auditors in connection therewith. The Audit Committee is also responsible for overseeing our investigation of, and response to, any cybersecurity attacks or threats.

We also have a dedicated team of employees overseeing our data security plan and initiatives, led by our Vice President of Information Systems (who has over twenty years’ experience working in cyber and information security roles with large companies), and works directly in consultation with internal and external advisors in connection with these efforts.

We have developed a procedure by which the Board and management are informed about and monitor the prevention, detection, mitigation and remediation of cybersecurity incidents. Our Incident Response Team, comprised of representatives of different departments within the Company, including the Vice President of Information Systems, works to identify cybersecurity-related incidents, and reports such incidents, along with any pertinent recommendations to update cybersecurity policies and procedures, to our management team. Our management team regularly reports to the Audit Committee, and more frequently as needed on such matters. The Audit Committee and management also provide an annual report to the Board on pertinent cybersecurity matters.

Item 2.     Properties

St. Joe owns 168,000 acres in Northwest Florida. A portion of our land is within the Sector Plan, that entitles, or gives legal rights, for us to originally develop over 170,000 residential dwelling units, over 22 million square feet of retail, commercial and industrial space and over 3,000 hotel rooms on lands within Florida’s Bay and Walton counties. We also have additional entitlements, or legal rights, to develop acreage outside of the Sector Plan. Approximately 87% of our real estate is located in Florida’s Bay, Gulf, and Walton counties. Approximately 90% of our real estate land holdings are located within fifteen miles of the Gulf of Mexico. Undeveloped land is managed as timberlands until designated for development. We anticipate a wide range of residential, commercial and hospitality uses on these land holdings. We have operating assets and projects under development in our residential, hospitality, and commercial segments. For more information on our real estate assets and related encumbrances, see “Item 1. Business” and “Schedule III (Consolidated) - Real Estate and Accumulated Depreciation” included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K for further information. In addition to the properties we own, we have investments in unconsolidated JVs that own properties such as the Latitude Margaritaville Watersound JV that includes the Latitude Margaritaville Watersound community.

In our residential segment, we develop communities into homesites for sale to homebuilders and on a limited basis to retail customers. As of December 31, 2023, we had completed homesites and homesites under development, engineering or in conceptual planning in nineteen separate communities. These include the Watersound Origins, Watersound Origins West, Watersound Camp Creek, Breakfast Point East, Titus Park, Ward Creek, College Station, Park Place, Salt Creek at Mexico Beach, WindMark Beach, SouthWood, and other Northwest Florida communities.

In our hospitality segment, we own a beach club, club amenities and three golf courses that are situated in or near our residential communities. We own the WaterColor Inn, The Pearl Hotel, Camp Creek Inn, Hilton Garden Inn Panama City Airport, Homewood Suites by Hilton Panama City Beach, Home2 Suites by Hilton Santa Rosa Beach, and the WaterSound Inn, along with nearby retail and commercial space. With our JV partners, we own The Lodge 30A and

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Embassy Suites by Hilton Panama City Beach Resort. We own additional properties in Panama City Beach, Florida that we operate as rental property. We own two marinas. We also own Hotel Indigo Panama City Marina and Harrison’s Kitchen & Bar, both on leased land in downtown Panama City. We are in the process of constructing The Third, an 18-hole golf course, in Bay County, Florida.

In our commercial segment, we own, or jointly own, the properties used in our operations and have properties under construction that will be used in our operations, which include multi-family, senior living, self-storage, retail, office, industrial and commercial property. These commercial properties are located in Beckrich Office Park, where we are headquartered, North Bay Landing, WindMark Beach, VentureCrossings, Watersound Town Center, West Bay Town Center, Florida State University (“FSU”)/Tallahassee Memorial Hospital (“TMH”) Medical Campus and other Northwest Florida locations. In addition, with our JV partners we own Pier Park North, Pier Park Crossings, Pier Park Crossings Phase II, Watersound Origins Crossings, Mexico Beach Crossings and Watercrest Senior Living.

Item 3.    Legal Proceedings

For information regarding legal proceedings, see Note 20. Commitments and Contingencies included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5.    Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

On February 19, 2024, we had approximately 760 registered holders of record of our common stock. Our common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “JOE.”

During each of the first and second quarters of 2023, a cash dividend of $0.10 per share on our common stock was paid and during each of the third and fourth quarters of 2023, a cash dividend of $0.12 per share on our common stock was paid ($0.44 per share in the aggregate). During 2022, we paid quarterly cash dividends of $0.10 per share on our common stock ($0.40 per share in the aggregate). During 2021, we paid quarterly cash dividends of $0.08 per share on our common stock ($0.32 per share in the aggregate). While we expect to continue to pay quarterly dividends, the declaration and payment of any future dividends will be at the discretion of our Board after taking into account various factors, including without limitation, our financial condition, earnings, capital requirements of our business, the terms of any credit agreements or indentures to which we may be a party to at the time, legal requirements, industry practice, and other factors that our Board deems relevant. Past payments of dividends should not be construed as a guarantee of payment or declaration of future dividends in the same amount or at all. See Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors – General Risks – We cannot assure you that we will not make changes to our existing capital allocation plan, including whether we will continue to pay dividends at the current rate or at all.

The following performance graph compares our cumulative shareholder returns for the period from December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2023, assuming $100 was invested on December 31, 2018, in our common stock, in the S&P SmallCap 600 Index, and a custom real estate peer group (the “Custom Real Estate Peer Group”). The Custom Real Estate Group is composed of Alexander & Baldwin Inc. (ALEX), CTO Realty Growth, Inc. (CTO), Five Point Holdings, LLC (FPH), Howard Hughes Holdings, Inc. (HHH), Maui Land & Pineapple Company, Inc. (MLP), Stratus Properties Inc. (STRS) and Tejon Ranch Co. (TRC). Total returns shown assume that dividends are reinvested. Total return for the Custom Real Estate Peer Group uses an equal weighting for each of the stocks within the peer group. The stock price performance shown below is not necessarily indicative of future price performance.

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Graphic

    

12/31/2018

    

12/31/2019

    

12/31/2020

    

12/31/2021

    

12/31/2022

    

12/31/2023

The St. Joe Company

$

100

$

150.57

$

323.10

$

398.91

$

298.92

$

469.65

S&P SmallCap 600 Index

$

100

$

120.86

$

132.43

$

165.89

$

137.00

$

156.02

Custom Real Estate Peer Group

$

100

$

123.04

$

90.97

$

121.68

$

97.39

$

113.57

Stock Repurchase Program

Our Board has approved the Stock Repurchase Program pursuant to which we are authorized to repurchase shares of our common stock. The program has no expiration date. As of December 31, 2023, we had a total authority of $80.0 million available for purchase of shares of our common stock outstanding. We may repurchase our common stock in open market purchases from time to time, in privately negotiated transactions or otherwise, pursuant to Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act. The timing and amount of any additional shares to be repurchased will depend upon a variety of factors. Repurchases may be commenced or suspended at any time or from time to time without prior notice. The program will continue until otherwise modified or terminated by our Board at any time in its sole discretion. Execution of the Stock Repurchase Program will reduce our “public float”, and the beneficial ownership of common stock by our directors, executive officers and affiliates will proportionately increase as a percentage of our outstanding common stock. However, we do not believe that it will cause our common stock to be delisted from NYSE or cause us to stop being subject to the periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. There were no stock repurchases during the fourth quarter of 2023.

Item 6.    Reserved

Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the accompanying audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in this Form 10-K. The statements in this discussion regarding industry outlook, our expectations regarding our future

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performance, liquidity and capital resources and other non-historical statements in this discussion are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, including the risks and uncertainties described in “Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K. Our actual results may differ materially from those contained in or implied by any forward-looking statements. We assume no obligation to revise or publicly release any revision to any forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K, unless required by law.

Business Overview

St. Joe is a real estate development, asset management and operating company with all of its real estate assets and operations in Northwest Florida. We intend to use existing assets for residential, hospitality and commercial ventures. We have significant residential and commercial land-use entitlements. We actively seek higher and better uses for our real estate assets through a range of development activities. As part of our core business strategy, we have created a meaningful portion of our business through JVs and limited partnerships over the past several years. We enter into these arrangements for the purposes of developing real estate and other business activities, which we believe allows us to complement our growth strategy, leverage industry expertise and diversify our business. We may also partner with or explore the sale of discrete assets when we and/or others can better deploy resources. We seek to enhance the value of our owned real estate assets by developing residential, commercial and hospitality projects to meet market demand. Approximately 87% of our real estate is located in Florida’s Bay, Gulf, and Walton counties. Approximately 90% of our real estate land holdings are located within fifteen miles of the Gulf of Mexico.

We believe our present capital structure, liquidity and land provide us with years of opportunities to increase recurring revenue and long-term value for our shareholders. We intend to focus on our core business activity of real estate development, asset management and operations. We continue to develop a broad range of asset types that we believe will provide acceptable rates of return, grow recurring revenues and support future business. Capital commitments will be funded with cash proceeds from completed projects, existing cash, owned-land, partner capital and financing arrangements. We do not anticipate immediate benefits from investments. Timing of projects may be subject to delays caused by factors beyond our control. We may also choose to operate rather than lease assets, lease rather than sell assets, or sell improved rather than unimproved land that may delay revenue and profits.

Our real estate investment strategy focuses on projects that meet long-term risk-adjusted return criteria. Our practice is to only incur such expenditures when our analysis indicates that a project will generate a return equal to or greater than the threshold return over its life.

Highlights for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 include:

Revenue increased by 54.3% to $389.2 million from $252.3 million.
Operating income increased by 47.7% to $90.7 million from $61.4 million.
Net income attributable to the Company increased by 9.6% to $77.7 million from $70.9 million. (Prior year net income attributable to the Company includes approximately $16.2 million after-tax gain on one unconsolidated joint venture and approximately $7.3 million after-tax gain on insurance recoveries.)

Market Conditions

Throughout 2023, we continued to generate positive financial results. While macroeconomic factors such as inflation, elevated interest rates, higher insurance costs, supply chain disruptions, labor shortages, financial institution disruptions and geopolitical conflicts, among other things, continued to produce economic headwinds and impacted buyer sentiment, demand across our segments remains strong. We believe this is primarily the result of the continued growth of Northwest Florida, which we attribute to the region’s high quality of life, natural beauty and outstanding amenities, as well as the evolving flexibility in the workplace.

Despite the strong demand across our segments, we also continue to feel the impact from the aforementioned macroeconomic factors, including supply chain disruptions which have extended the time to complete residential, hospitality and commercial projects. In addition, inflation, higher insurance costs and elevated interest rates, have

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increased operating costs and loan rates, as compared to prior periods. While elevated interest rates have negatively impacted buyers’ ability to obtain financing and the housing market generally, the impact has been offset by the net migration into our markets, limited housing supply relative to demand and the number of cash buyers. Market conditions have not caused an increase in cancellation rates as homebuilders have continued to perform on their contractual obligations with us.

Given our diverse portfolio of residential holdings, the mix of sales and pricing from different communities may impact revenue and margins period over period, as discussed in more detail below.

Further discussion of the potential impacts on our business from the current macroeconomic environment are discussed in Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Reportable Segments

We conduct primarily all of our business in the following three reportable segments: 1) residential, 2) hospitality and 3) commercial.

The following table sets forth the relative contribution of these reportable segments to our consolidated operating revenue:

    

Year Ended December 31, 

 

2023

    

2022

    

2021

Segment Operating Revenue

 

  

 

  

 

  

Residential

 

40.0

%  

36.8

%  

54.3

%  

Hospitality

 

39.7

%  

38.6

%  

27.9

%  

Commercial

 

19.1

%  

23.5

%  

17.1

%  

Other

 

1.2

%  

1.1

%  

0.7

%  

Consolidated operating revenue

 

100.0

%  

100.0

%  

100.0

%  

For more information regarding our reportable segments, see Note 19. Segment Information included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K.

Residential Segment

Our residential segment typically plans and develops residential communities of various sizes across a wide range of price points and sells homesites to homebuilders or retail consumers. Our residential segment also evaluates opportunities to enter into JV agreements for specific communities such as Latitude Margaritaville Watersound.

The residential segment generates revenue from sales of developed homesites, homes and other residential land and certain homesite residuals from homebuilder sales that provide us a percentage of the sale price of the completed home if the home price exceeds a negotiated threshold. Revenue is recognized at the point in time when a sale is closed and title and control has been transferred to the buyer. The residential segment also generates revenue from the sale of tap and impact fee credits, marketing fees and other fees on certain transactions. Certain homesite residuals and other revenue related to homebuilder homesite sales are recognized in revenue at the point in time of the closing of the sale. The residential segment incurs cost from direct costs (e.g., development and construction costs), selling costs and other indirect costs.

Our residential segment includes the Watersound Origins, Watersound Origins West, Watersound Camp Creek, Breakfast Point East, Titus Park, Ward Creek, College Station, Park Place, Salt Creek at Mexico Beach, WindMark Beach and SouthWood communities, which are large scale, multi-phase communities with current development activity, sales activity or future phases. Homesites in these communities are developed based on market demand and sold primarily to homebuilders and on a limited basis to retail customers.

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The East Lake Creek, East Lake Powell, Lake Powell, Teachee, West Bay Creek and West Laird communities have phases of homesites in preliminary planning or permitting. Homesites in these communities will be developed based on market demand and sold primarily to homebuilders and on a limited basis to retail customers.

The SummerCamp Beach community has homesites available for sale and along with the RiverCamps community, both have additional lands for future development.

The Latitude Margaritaville Watersound community is a planned 55+ active adult residential community in Bay County, Florida. The community is located near the Intracoastal Waterway with convenient access to the Northwest Florida Beaches International Airport. The community is being developed through our unconsolidated Latitude Margaritaville Watersound JV with our partner Minto Communities USA, a homebuilder and community developer, and is estimated to include approximately 3,500 residential homes, which will be developed in smaller increments of discrete neighborhoods. As of December 31, 2023, the unconsolidated Latitude Margaritaville Watersound JV had 609 homes under contract, which are expected to result in a sales value of approximately $318.5 million at closing of the homes. See Note 4. Joint Ventures included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K for additional information.

The residential homesite pipeline by community/project are as follows:

Residential Homesite Pipeline (a)

Platted or

Additional

Under

Engineering

Entitlements with

Community/Project

Location

Development

or Permitting

Concept Plan

Total

Breakfast Point East (b)

Bay County, FL

31

266

104

401

College Station

Bay County, FL

58

265

323

East Lake Creek (b)

Bay County, FL

200

200

East Lake Powell (c)

Bay County, FL

360

360

Lake Powell (d)

Bay County, FL

1,352

1,352

Latitude Margaritaville Watersound (d) (e)

Bay County, FL

1,367

386

743

2,496

Salt Creek at Mexico Beach (b)

Bay County, FL

92

275

367

Salt Creek at Mexico Beach Townhomes (b)

Bay County, FL

36

82

118

Park Place

Bay County, FL

34

191

225

RiverCamps (c)

Bay County, FL

149

149

SouthWood (f)

Leon County, FL

7

80

920

1,007

SummerCamp Beach (b)

Franklin County, FL

27

260

287

Teachee (d)

Bay County, FL

1,750

1,750

Titus Park

Bay County, FL

128

144

560

832

Ward Creek (d)

Bay County, FL

444

316

601

1,361

Watersound Camp Creek (f)

Walton County, FL

74

74

Watersound Origins (f)

Walton County, FL

253

253

Watersound Origins West (d)

Walton County, FL

99

158

1,694

1,951

West Bay Creek (d)

Bay County, FL

5,250

5,250

West Laird (d)

Bay County, FL

1,068

1,117

2,185

WindMark Beach (f)

Gulf County, FL

94

549

317

960

Total Homesites

2,558

3,153

16,190

21,901

(a)The number of homesites are preliminary and are subject to change. Includes homesites platted or currently in concept planning, engineering, permitting or development. We have significant additional entitlements for future residential homesites on our land holdings.
(b)Planned Unit Development (“PUD”).
(c)Development Agreement (“DA”).
(d)Detailed Specific Area Plan (“DSAP”).
(e)The unconsolidated Latitude Margaritaville Watersound JV builds and sells homes in this community.
(f)Development of Regional Impact (“DRI”).

In addition to the communities listed above, we have a number of other residential project concepts in various stages of planning and evaluation.

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As of December 31, 2023, we had nineteen different homebuilders within our residential communities. As of December 31, 2023, we had 1,486 residential homesites under contract, which are expected to result in revenue of approximately $132.5 million, plus residuals, at closing of the homesites over the next several years. By comparison, as of December 31, 2022, we had 2,197 residential homesites under contract, with an expected revenue of approximately $176.3 million, plus residuals. The change in homesites under contract is due to increased homesite transactions during 2023 and the amount of remaining homesites in current phases of residential communities. The number of homesites under contract is subject to change based on homesite closings and new sales activity. Homesite prices vary significantly by community and often sell in concentrated transactions that may impact quarterly results. As of December 31, 2023, in addition to the 1,486 homesites under contract in other residential communities, our unconsolidated Latitude Margaritaville Watersound JV had 609 homes under contract, which together with the 1,486 homesites are expected to result in a sales value of approximately $451.0 million at closing of the homesites and homes.

Hospitality Segment

Our hospitality segment features a private membership club (the “Watersound Club”), hotel operations, food and beverage operations, golf courses, beach clubs, retail outlets, gulf-front vacation rentals, management services, marinas and other entertainment assets. The hospitality segment generates revenue from membership sales, golf courses, lodging at our hotels, short-term vacation rentals, management of The Pearl Hotel (prior to acquisition in December 2022), food and beverage operations, merchandise sales, marina operations (including boat slip rentals, boat storage fees and fuel sales), charter flights, other resort and entertainment activities and beach clubs, which includes operation of the WaterColor Beach Club. Hospitality revenue is generally recognized at the point in time services are provided and represent a single performance obligation with a fixed transaction price. Hospitality revenue recognized over time includes non-refundable club membership initiation fees, club membership dues, management fees and other membership fees. The hospitality segment incurs costs from the services and goods provided, personnel costs, maintenance of the facilities and holding costs of the assets. From time to time, we may explore the sale of certain hospitality properties, the development of new hospitality properties, as well as new entertainment and management opportunities. Some of our JV assets and other assets incur interest and financing expenses related to the loans as described in Note 10. Debt, Net included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K.

Watersound Club provides club members and guests of some of our hotels access to our member facilities, which include Camp Creek golf course and amenities, Shark’s Tooth golf course and tennis center, Watersound Beach Club and a Pilatus PC-12 NG aircraft (“N850J”). Watersound Club offers different types of club memberships, each with different access rights and associated fee structures. Watersound Club is focused on creating an outstanding membership experience combined with the luxurious aspects of a destination resort. Club operations include a private beach club located on Scenic Highway 30A, with over one mile of Gulf of Mexico frontage, two resort-style pools, two restaurants, three bars, kid’s room and a recreation area. Shark’s Tooth includes an 18-hole golf course, tennis center, a full club house, a pro shop, as well as two food and beverage outlets. Camp Creek includes an 18-hole golf course, a full club house, health and wellness center, three restaurants, a tennis and pickle ball center, a resort-style pool complex with separate adult pool, a golf teaching academy, pro shop and multi-sport fields. We are in the process of constructing The Third, an 18-hole golf course, planned to be added to our Watersound Club operations.

Watersound Origins amenities include an executive golf course, resort-style pool, fitness center and two tennis courts located in the community. Access to these amenities is reserved to Watersound Origins and Watersound Origins West members consisting of the communities’ residents. The golf course is available for public play.

We own and operate the award-winning WaterColor Inn (which includes the Fish Out of Water restaurant) and The Pearl Hotel (which includes the Havana Beach Bar & Grill restaurant); the Camp Creek Inn, the Hilton Garden Inn Panama City Airport, the Homewood Suites by Hilton Panama City Beach, the Hotel Indigo Panama City Marina, the Home2 Suites by Hilton Santa Rosa Beach, the WaterSound Inn and two gulf-front vacation rental houses. With our JV partners, we own and operate The Lodge 30A and the Embassy Suites by Hilton Panama City Beach Resort. We also operate the WaterColor Beach Club, which includes food and beverage operations and other hospitality related activities, such as beach chair rentals.

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We are in the process of constructing a Residence Inn by Marriott, with our JV partner, in Panama City Beach, Florida. Once complete, the hotel will be operated by our JV partner and will be included within our commercial segment.

Our hotel portfolio by property is as follows:

Rooms (a)

Location

Completed

Planned

Total

Operational

Camp Creek Inn (b)

Walton County, FL

75

75

WaterColor Inn (c)

Walton County, FL

67

67

The Pearl Hotel (d)

Walton County, FL

55

55

WaterSound Inn

Walton County, FL

11

11

The Lodge 30A (e) (f)

Walton County, FL

85

85

Home2 Suites by Hilton Santa Rosa Beach (b)

Walton County, FL

107

107

Embassy Suites by Hilton Panama City Beach Resort (f) (g)

Bay County, FL

255

255

Hilton Garden Inn Panama City Airport

Bay County, FL

143

143

Homewood Suites by Hilton Panama City Beach (h)

Bay County, FL

131

131

Hotel Indigo Panama City Marina (b)

Bay County, FL

124

124

TownePlace Suites by Marriott Panama City Beach Pier Park (i)

Bay County, FL

124

124

Total operational rooms

1,177

1,177

Under Development/Construction

Residence Inn by Marriott, Panama City Beach, Florida (j)

Bay County, FL

121

121

Total rooms under development/construction

121

121

Total rooms

1,177

121

1,298

(a)Includes hotels currently in operation or under development and construction. We have significant additional entitlements for future hotel projects on our land holdings.
(b)The hotel opened in June 2023.
(c)Seven additional suites were completed in June 2022.
(d)We acquired the hotel in December 2022. The hotel was previously owned by a third party, but operated by our hospitality segment.
(e)The hotel opened in February 2023.
(f)Property is related to a consolidated JV. See Note 4. Joint Ventures included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
(g)The hotel opened in April 2023.
(h)The hotel opened in March 2022.
(i)The hotel is operated by our JV partner. Pier Park TPS, LLC, (the “Pier Park TPS JV”) is unconsolidated and is accounted for under the equity method of accounting, which is included within our commercial segment. See Note 4. Joint Ventures included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
(j)The hotel is under development with our JV partner. Once complete, the hotel will be operated by our JV partner. The Pier Park RI JV (Pier Park RI, LLC, the “Pier Park RI JV”) is unconsolidated and is accounted for under the equity method of accounting, which is included within our commercial segment. See Note 4. Joint Ventures included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K for additional information.

We own and operate two marinas, the Point South Marina Bay Point in Bay County, Florida and Point South Marina Port St. Joe in Gulf County, Florida. We are planning new marinas along the Intracoastal Waterway. The Point South Marina Bay Point reopened in the third quarter of 2022 and the Point South Marina Port St. Joe reopened in the fourth quarter of 2022 after completion of reconstruction due to damage from Hurricane Michael.

We also own and operate retail stores, two standalone restaurants and other entertainment assets.

In addition to the properties listed above, we have a number of hospitality projects in various stages of planning.

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Commercial Segment

Our commercial segment includes leasing of commercial property, multi-family, senior living, self-storage and other assets. The commercial segment oversees the planning, development, entitlement, management and sale of our commercial and rural land holdings for a variety of uses, including a broad range of retail, office, hotel, senior living, multi-family, self-storage and industrial properties. We provide development opportunities for national, regional and local retailers and other strategic partners in Northwest Florida. We own and manage retail shopping centers and develop commercial parcels. We are currently developing the Watersound Town Center in Walton County, Florida and Watersound West Bay Center in Bay County, Florida. These lifestyle centers are complementary to our Watersound Origins and Latitude Margaritaville Watersound residential communities. In conjunction with FSU and TMH, we are in the process of developing an 87-acre medical campus in Panama City Beach, Florida. We have large land holdings near the Pier Park retail center, adjacent to the Northwest Florida Beaches International Airport, near or within business districts in the region and along major roadways. We lease land for various other uses. The commercial segment manages our timber holdings in Northwest Florida which includes growing and selling pulpwood, sawtimber and other products.

The commercial segment generates leasing revenue and incurs leasing expenses primarily from maintenance and management of our properties, personnel costs and asset holding costs. Our commercial segment generates revenue from the sale of developed and undeveloped land, timber holdings or land with limited development and/or entitlements and the sale of commercial operating properties. Real estate sales in our commercial segment incur costs of revenue directly associated with the land, development, construction, timber and selling costs. Our commercial segment generates timber revenue primarily from open market sales of timber on site without the associated delivery costs. Some of our JV assets and other assets incur interest and financing expenses related to loans as described in Note 10. Debt, Net included in Item 15 of this Form 10-K.

Total units and percentage leased for multi-family and senior living communities by location are as follows:

December 31, 2023

December 31, 2022

December 31, 2021

Percentage

Percentage

Percentage

Leased

Leased

Leased

  

Units

  

Units

Units

of Units

Units

Units

of Units

Units

Units

of Units

Location

Planned

Completed

Leased

Completed

Completed

Leased

Completed

Completed

Leased

Completed

Multi-family

Pier Park Crossings (a) (b)

Bay County, FL

240

240

226

94

%

240

228

95

%

240

234

98

%

Pier Park Crossings Phase II (a) (b)

Bay County, FL

120

120

118

98

%

120

115

96

%

120

113

94

%

Watersound Origins Crossings (a) (b)

Walton County, FL

217

217

193

89

%

217

199

92

%

217

207

95

%

Sea Sound (c)

Bay County, FL

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

%

N/A

N/A

N/A

%

214

203

95

%

North Bay Landing (b) (d)

Bay County, FL

240

240

222

93

%

120

94

78

%

N/A

%

Mexico Beach Crossings (a) (b) (e)

Bay County, FL

216

216

76

35

%

N/A

%

N/A

%

Origins Crossings Townhomes (b) (f)

Walton County, FL

64

64

46

72

%

48

33

69

%

N/A

%

WindMark Beach (g)

Gulf County, FL

31

31

12

39

%

12

10

83

%

31

31

100

%

Total multi-family units

1,128

1,128

893

79

%

757

679

90

%

822

788

96%

%

Senior living communities

Watercrest (a)

Walton County, FL

107

107

106

99

%

107

88

82

%

107

47

44

%

Watersound Fountains (h)

Walton County, FL

148

N/A

%

N/A

%

N/A

%

Total senior living units

255

107

106

99

%

107

88

82

%

107

47